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10. High-Speed Signal Processing, Equalization, and Coding
75-Minute Panel Discussion
Audience Level: All
The eye diagram is the bread-and-butter tool in many areas of digital communication and signaling. It is a straightforward visual gauge of the signal quality. As signaling moves from NRZ to PAM4, from below 10 GBd to 25+ and 50+ GBd, Ethernet and other standards shifted away from eye diagram measurement to linear fitted pulse, SNDR, and other methods. Why this change? We discuss the reasons, the new methods and what worked well and what was difficult, the acceptance and the way forward in 50+ GBd electrical and 100 GBd optical. Then we ask, "Is this transition a general move?" It certainly is occurring differently in different standards, so we compare the very highest speed standards to the latest DDR memory buses.
A quick review of the 100G to 400G transition, then discussion of the pain points and surprises from the replacement of the eye diagram measurements by e.g. SNDR, TDECQ and similar methods. Correlations (or not) of these to BER test is discussed.
Understanding of PAM-2 and PAM-4 modulation, equalization, ISI, mask test, BER and symbol error ratio (SER).