April 5-7, 2022|Santa Clara Convention Center| Santa Clara, CA

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A Study on 224G Channel Characteristics


Zach Peng  (Staff R&D product development engineer, TE Connectivity)


Xiaoxuan Liu  (SI engineer, ZTE)

Changgang Yin  (SI engineer, ZTE)

Zhongmin Wei  (SI engineer, ZTE)

Feng Wu  (SI/PI engineer, Sanechips/ZTE)

Ming Zheng  (SI engineer, ZTE)

Location: Chiphead Theater

Date: Thursday, April 7

Time: 12:15 pm - 12:25 pm

Track: Chiphead Theater, 06. System Co-Design: Modeling, Simulation & Measurement Validation

Format: Lightning Talk

Theme : High-speed Communications

Education Level: Advanced

Pass Type: 2-Day Pass, All Access Pass, Expo Pass

Vault Recording: TBD

Audience Level: Advanced

At present, 224G is in the early stage of research and exploration, and has no clear answers to the key technical questions such as signal transmission media, signal modulation mode, connector and IC package performance requirements, etc.
This paper analyzes the performance of the 224G passive channel based on the current and next generation technical conditions. Passive channels include electrical channel (PCB and Cable), BGA fan-out, connector and IC package. Channel characteristics include: insertion loss, return loss (ERL), crosstalk, ILD and mode conversion, etc. Through the analysis of the factors affecting the performance of each passive module, various samples of 224G channel with different characteristics are given.
Based on the above various samples of 224G channel with different characteristics, we use a Statistic Eye method to perform preliminary BER simulation analysis. The eye pattern and BER simulation results of different channels in different modulation modes(PAM4, PAM6 and PAM8) are provided. Based on the simulation results, an exploratory conclusion from two perspectives are provided. On the one hand, the passive channel characteristics application to each modulation mode(PAM4, PAM6 and PAM8) are recommended, and on the other hand, the modulation mode selection reference is provided for actual application scenarios.


This paper studies the performance of the 224 G passive channel, and analyzes the eye pattern and BER of the channels with different modulation modes by using a Statistics Eye Method. Finally, the preliminary recommendation of modulation mode and channel characteristics are provided through analysis of the simulation results.

Intended Audience

Theoretical knowledge of electromagnetic fields; System-level SI simulation/test experience