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An Optimized Method Based on Markov Chain to Calculate Total BER Pre-FEC

Shiju Sui  (signal integrity engineer, ZTE)

Xiaowei Zhan  (signal integrity engineer, ZTE)

Yi Chen  (signal integrity engineer, ZTE)

Haidan Yu  (signal integrity engineer, ZTE)

Qin Li  (Signal Integrity Engineer, ZTE)

Location: Ballroom D

Date: Thursday, January 30

Time: 11:00am - 11:45am

Track: 08. Measurement, Simulation & Improving Jitter, Noise & BER (Pre & Post FEC), 09. High-Speed Signal Processing, Equalization & Coding

Format: Technical Session

Pass Type: 2-Day Pass, All-Access Pass, Alumni All-Access Pass - Get your pass now!

Vault Recording: TBD

Audience Level: Advanced

The simulation of COM only considers the random error. But the ratio of burst error to random error can represent the average error when burst error occured, which is the key factor to analyze the BER post-FEC. In this paper, the optimized method based on Markov chain is proposed for NRZ & PAM4 system. For NRZ system with multi-tap DFE, an alternative algorithm based on Markov chain is proposed to calculate total BER accurately. For PAM4 system, this algorithm can give the BER pre-FEC at each voltage level.


The burst error is critical for the BER post-FEC. It is only affected by the previous codes, which meets the precondition of Markov chain. In this paper, bathtub curve and Markov chain are used to calculate the random & burst error in multi-tap DFE system and PAM4 system.

Intended Audience

1. The bathtub curve can truly reflect the BER distribution of high-speed links.
2. There are no other factors that may cause burst error in the system except DFE.

Presentation Files