April 5-7, 2022|Santa Clara Convention Center| Santa Clara, CA

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Challenges of Automated Stressed Receiver Tolerance Testing: NRZ, PAM4 & Beyond


Wolfgang Köbele  (Software engineer, BitifEye R&D GmbH)

Anton M. Unakafov  (Scientist, BitifEye Digital Test Solutions GmbH)

Parthasarathy Raju  (Technical Manager, BitifEye Research & Development)

Ransom Stephens  (Consulting Senior Scientist at BitifEye Digital Solutions and Sage at Ransom’s Notes, BitifEye Digital Test Solutions GmbH)


Bernhard Leibold  (Project Manager, BitifEye R&D GmbH)

Hermann Stehling  (CTO, BitifEye Digital Test Solutions GmbH)

Valentina Unakafova  (Scientist, Software Architect and Project Manager, BitifEye Digital Test Solutions GmbH)

Location: Ballroom F

Date: Wednesday, April 6

Time: 12:15 pm - 1:00 pm

Track: 08. Measurement & Simulation Techniques for Analyzing Jitter, Noise & BER, 12. Applying Test & Measurement Methodology

Format: Technical Session

Theme : High-speed Communications

Education Level: All

Pass Type: 2-Day Pass, All Access Pass

Vault Recording: TBD

Audience Level: All

Serdes receivers have evolved into multi-faceted devices capable of identifying NRZ and PAM4 logic symbols from closed eye diagrams. As receiver complexity has increased, so have stressed receiver tolerance techniques that test receivers with worst-case but compliant test signals. Specifications define worst-case signals in terms of eye width (EW) and eye height (EH) at the receiver. The prescribed eye closure, defined with respect to symbol error ratio (SER), is achieved by subjecting test signals to the frequency response of a specified interconnect and adding jitter, noise, interference, and crosstalk. Since EH and EW depend on the signal impairments in different ways, calibrating the stress signal is an optimization problem of two simultaneous functions (EH and EW) of common variables (the signal impairments ). Our presentation begins with a brief but complete review of signal impairments and how they simultaneously affect EH and EW. We then introduce COM (channel operating margin) to help simplify generation of the stressed signal, but at the expense of introducing yet another optimization problem. We conclude by discussing future challenges in receiver testing for more complex PAM signaling schemes as well as schemes generalizing the concept of differential signaling, like MIPI-C-PHY, ENRZ or CNRZ-5.


We hope to give you an insight about challenges with eye measurements at current and evolving technologies.