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High-Speed Differential Via Characterization: Numerical Simulation & Measurement Validation with De-embedding

Kevin Cai  (Technical Lead, Cisco Systems, Inc.)

Anna Gao  (College Intern, Cisco Systems, Inc.)

Bidyut Sen  (Principle Engineer, Cisco Systems, Inc.)

Feng Ling  (CEO, Xpeedic Technology, Inc.)

Joshua Wan  (Lead Application Engineer, Xpeedic Technology, Inc.)

Location: Ballroom E

Date: Thursday, January 30

Time: 2:50 pm - 3:30 pm

Track: 13. Modeling & Analysis of Interconnects, 12. Applying Test & Measurement Methodology

Format: Technical Session

Pass Type: 2-Day Pass, All-Access Pass, Alumni All-Access Pass - Get your pass now!

Vault Recording: TBD

Audience Level: Intermediate

Via is commonly seen in multilayer PCB. With the data rate increasing to 56G or even higher, accurate modeling of differential vias becomes critical for high-speed designs. It is challenging to characterize the differential vias from both simulation and measurement. Achieving good correlation up to 50GHz or higher frequencies is even more challenging. The paper presents a complete flow covering simulation, measurement with de-embedding, and their correlation. A novel magnetic current based MoM is proposed, which shows significant speedup while maintaining the same accuracy as 3D FEM solvers. The measurement techniques with various de-embedding methods will be also reviewed. The novel 2x-through based de-embedding is proposed, which demonstrates good correlation with reference data in IEEE P370. To establish simulation-measurement correlation, material Dk/Df extraction is also developed.


1. complete flow for differential via characterization from simulation, measurement with de-embedding, and their correlation.
2. review of various numerical methods for via modeling multilayer PCB;
3. novel method of moments (MoM) solver with magnetic current is proposed, which shows great accuracy with significant speed advantage;
4. review of various de-embedding techniques and their pros and cons;
5. the 2x-through based de-embedding is proposed, which shows excellent correlation with simulated results.

Intended Audience

signal integrity, high-speed design, EM simulation, de-embedding, Dk/Df, differential via

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